2020 Digital Conference
We are pleased to announce that the 2020 ASPE Digital Experience is complimentary to ASPE Members! With your complimentary registration you will be able to participate in all live and recorded education sessions, giving you the ability to earn up 15 hours of continuing education. We will be offering a few featured live sessions for all attendees to participate in, along with many opportunities for networking and meet-the-expert conversations. You will gain access to the recorded sessions ahead of time so you can plan your networking meetings and gather questions for the speakers.
Recorded sessions will be available for viewing until January 31, 2021.
Not a member? Click here to join ASPE today and secure your spot for this year's event.
Lab Water Design - An In-Depth Case Study and Review - 522Contains 6 Component(s), Includes Credits
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Lab Water Design - An In-Depth Case Study and Review - 522. Lab water design is a multifaceted topic consisting of high purity water generation, loop design, central system, point of use systems, aqueous waste collection/transfer and solvent collection and handling. The presentation will focus on a recently completed laboratory building. The building consisted of clean rooms as well as an additional wet lab space. The presentation will work through the case study covering the complete design of the lab water systems and piping infrastructure.
For experienced engineers as well as those just entering the field, lab plumbing and system design can be intimidating. The systems and plumbing technologies utilized vary depending on the type of laboratory and different process variables that come into play. This presentation will show plumbing engineers and designers the step-by-step process for doing lab plumbing and system design. This will include what types of questions to ask, a review of different process variables, and a discussion of the types of water systems/plumbing involved in lab design. This will be done in the backdrop of a recently completed case study to show the audience how these various technologies work together to a finished project.
The discussion will be broken down between high-purity piping and system design. This will include water quality selection and applicability, piping design and connections, point-of-use systems and where they are applicable, as well as a discussion of central systems. Many of the frequently asked questions such as determining water quality, loop design, pitfalls to avoid, and when to utilize different high-purity water systems will be explored.
The discussion will then shift to the waste side, understanding and categorizing waste streams whether they be chemicals, biological, or solvent wastes. Proper system design such as pH adjustment, effluent decontamination (also referred to as bio-kill), and solvent collection will be discussed. Waste conveyance technology will also be reviewed, and system and pipe sizing as well as monitoring will be discussed.
- Properly perform high purity loop design, calculations, and understand different loop materials and joining technologies. 15 minutes
- Design a central system and strategically utilize point of system based on the water quality requirements of induvial labs. 15 mintues
- Design of the waste water treatment system for a lab building. This includes chemical and effluent decontamination. 15 mintues
- Design water collection and transfer design either pumped or gravity. 10 mintues
- Implement solvent collection in the lab space when required. 5 minutes
Practical Plumbing That Improves Customer Satisfaction - 512Contains 5 Component(s), Includes Credits Includes a Live Web Event on 12/02/2020 at 1:00 PM (CST)
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Practical Plumbing That Improves Customer Satisfaction - 512. This session will use hands-on teaching to explore the answers to the following questions. 1) Why does it take so long for hot water to arrive at plumbing fixtures and appliances? 2) Why is this amount of time (and water) larger than the volume in the pipe? 3) What can I do to reduce the structural and behavioral waste while waiting? 4) What one item can I include in my specifications that will increase satisfaction with modern faucets and showers?
This session will explore the answers to the following questions. 1) Why does it take so long for hot water to arrive at plumbing fixtures and appliances? 2) Why is this amount of time (and water) larger than the volume in the pipe? 3) What can I do to reduce the structural and behavioral waste while waiting? 4) What one item can I include in my specifications that will increase satisfaction with modern faucets and showers? Having searched for solutions to these vexing problems for more than 25 years, I have found a few principles and products that can vastly improve customer satisfaction with their hot water systems. They save energy and water and generally reduce residence time, making the plumbing less prone to supporting pathogen growth.
- Explain why it takes so long for hot water to arrive at plumbing fixtures and appliances. 15 minutes
- Calculate how much extra water runs down the drain before hot water arrives. 15 minutes
- Design plumbing systems based on modern flow rates with modern pipe and fittings. 15 minutes
- Specify one key item that will improve customer satisfaction with modern faucets and showers. 15 minutes
Gary Klein, President of Gary Klein & Associates Inc., has been intimately involved in energy-efficiency and renewable energy since 1974. One fifth of his career was spent in the Kingdom of Lesotho. Gary has a passion for hot water: getting into it, getting out of it, and efficiently delivering it to meet customer's needs. After serving 19 years with the California Energy Commission, he has provided consulting on sustainability since 2008, with an emphasis on the water-energy-carbon connection. Gary received a BA from Cornell University in 1975 with an independent major in technology and society, with an emphasis on energy conservation and renewable energy.
IAPMO recognized his efforts in 2014, presenting him their Green Professional of the Year award. In 2015 the Department of Energy awarded him the Jeffrey A. Johnson Award for Excellence in the Advancement of Building Energy Codes.
Plumbing Systems and Global Pandemics - 422Contains 5 Component(s), Includes Credits Includes a Live Web Event on 12/02/2020 at 1:00 PM (CST)
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Plumbing Systems and Global Pandemics - 422. This seminar provides a broad review of the effect of COVID-19 crisis and the unintended consequences of how this crisis has specifically affected plumbing systems.
This seminar provides a broad review of the effect of COVID-19 crisis and the unintended consequences of how this crisis has specifically affected plumbing systems. Whether the impact to vacant buildings causing stagnant water and an amplification of waterborne pathogens, or revisions to medical gas system usage, flexible design is key, but it needs to be balanced and make sure other issues are not caused. This holistic approach, will necessarily require the elevation of the entire plumbing engineering and design profession in order to meet these new challenges, making this unique opportunity for the entire plumbing industry.Content Outline:
- Introductions & 2nd Order Thinking Concept Overview and unintended consequences of decisions, through the lens of water safety (chlorine/chloramine, corrosion inhibitors, and pH) (15 minutes)
- COVID-19 impact on municipal water supplies and vacant buildings, overview best flushing practices prior to occupancy, and testing requirements (15 minutes)
- Impact of COVID-19 to sanitary systems (15 minutes)
- Impact of COVID-19 impact to medical gas (15 minutes)
- Converting non-healthcare spaces to healthcare spaces from a plumbing perspective (15 minutes)
- Review the ways that the COVID crisis has highlighted the need to elevate the plumbing engineering and design profession, and identify what steps plumbing engineers and designers can take to elevate the profession. (10 minutes)
- Q&A - (5 Minutes)
Upon successful completion of the course learners will be able to:
- Discuss 2nd Order thinking and why it is important this concept is so critical when creating solutions to problems stemming from global pandemics
- Describe the challenges of converting non-healthcare spaces into healthcare spaces with respect to plumbing
- Identify the concern of COVID-19 in sanitary systems and at wastewater treatment plants
- Explain how COVID-19 can potentially impact existing medical gas systems and why evaluations are needed
- Recognize the need to elevate the plumbing engineering and design profession, and identify first steps to make this happen.
Christoph Lohr has over 10 years of experience in designing plumbing systems for healthcare, laboratory, hospitality, sports, and university projects. He has a reputation as a results-oriented expert. Christoph's current responsibilities as Vice President of Strategic Initiatives for IAPMO is to identify long term, high impact projects, developing a business case for them, bring resources to bear, and executing them for maximum results. He has a concentrated focus in honing his personal and organization's strategy on possible breakthrough points which has led to improved effectiveness and growth.
Christoph's professional activities in the industry extend into multiple volunteer associations, of which he has also assumed leadership roles setting strategy and direction for teams including ASPE Phoenix Chapter, ASPE Society, ASPE Legionella Working Group, ASHRAE Committees, PIPE Trust of Arizona, IAPMO’s Safe Building Reopening Best Practices among others. Additionally, he has been involved in numerous strategic planning initiatives to help organizations he has belonged to in improving their overall effectiveness. It is with this mindset that Christoph consistently looks to find long-term, holistic solutions that positively impact public health and safety, particularly in the world of water and plumbing.
In-building Blackwater Reclamation and Thermal Energy Recovery in Manhattan - 421Contains 5 Component(s), Includes Credits
ASPE Digital Conference Session: In-building Blackwater Reclamation and Thermal Energy Recovery in Manhattan - 421. In addition to water scarcity, drivers to consider water reuse now include aging or inadequate infrastructure, resiliency, resource recovery and increasing costs for conventional water and sewer. Many communities are responding by incorporating onsite water treatment and reuse systems for both existing and new-build projects. As water reuse initiatives increase, more focus is being directed to the water-energy nexus; which is the relationship between how much water is used to generate and transmit energy, and how much energy it takes to collect, clean, transport and store water. Onsite or distributed systems are located closer to the source and point of use, which facilitates local recovery of both water and thermal energy embedded in the water. Natural Systems Utilities is currently recovering thermal energy from treated wastewater at its onsite treatment and reuse systems. These projects illustrate how distributed systems can facilitate local integration of our water and energy infrastructure, and be competitive against conventional infrastructure on water, cost and carbon savings. Two New York City residential tower case studies located in Battery Park will be presented. The case studies will include a multi-building onsite treatment and reuse system at the Helena, and an existing in-building treatment and reuse system at The Solaire, a LEED Platinum has been retro-fitted to recover reuse water heat energy for domestic hot water heating purposes. The heat recovery system reduces the building heating costs and saves more equivalent thermal energy than used to power the water reuse system electrically. This presentation will explore the performance of these heat recovery applications and how, for the first time, they make small-scale onsite water treatment and reuse systems net energy producers.
A full-service platform was used to improve existing infrastructure systems to scale up and recover energy from existing onsite water reuse systems. Two case studies will be presented to demonstrate how the platform was deployed, which created positive impacts on water-energy utilization and the triple bottom line for stakeholders.
The Helena, located at West 57th Street in Manhattan, is an environmentally advanced residential tower. The existing onsite wastewater treatment and reuse system produces high-quality reuse water for building cooling tower makeup and water fixture flushing. Through direct communications with the owner, The Durst Organization, an opportunity of expanding the existing wastewater treatment infrastructure into a district-scale system was identified. A comprehensive evaluation was conducted through collaborations between the owner, engineers, and field operators. The expansions of infrastructure included replacing the energy-intensive cross-flow membranes, resizing the bioreactor volumes, and upgrading the equipment and piping. The system now has the capacity of producing up to 60,000 gpd reuse water (a 50% increase from the original system), which is enough to satisfy all of the Helena’s reuse demands, and the additional ~20,000 gpd of available reuse water is provided to an adjacent new 31-story residential building located at 625 West 57th St (The Via). Expanding the treatment capacity to a district scale not only favors project return on investment for the owner, but also further increases water savings and improves water resiliency. Additionally, splitting the reuse water between the two buildings enables the new building to easily qualify for NYCDEP’s Comprehensive Water Reuse Program credits while continuing to maintain the Helena’s eligibility for its own credits.
The Solaire, located in Battery Park City, Manhattan, is America’s first green high-rise residential building, which has received a LEED Gold (initial construction) and LEED Platinum (ongoing Operations & Maintenance)certification from the U.S. Green Building Council. A significant green component is a membrane bioreactor-based wastewater treatment and recycling system installed in the building’s basement, which provides reclaimed water for use as fixture flush water, cooling tower makeup, and irrigation. The membrane bioreactor features a hollow-fiber ultra-filtration system that provides high-quality effluent for multiple key reuse applications. The process consumes XX of the building's electrical consumption and is perceived to be an energy-intensive process. We collected feedback from field operations and collaborated with the owner; The Albanese Organization, to bring innovative approaches to improve the water-energy nexus for the high-rise building's onsite wastewater treatment and reuse systems. By optimizing the operational sequence, the electrical consumption has been reduced by 15-20%, and we are able to convert the onsite wastewater treatment system into a distributed energy generator by capturing the free thermal energy from the treated wastewater. A gas absorption heat pump was installed to achieve the transfer of thermal energy from the treated wastewater to the building's domestic water heating systems. The energy saved from pre-heating the domestic water is significantly offsetting the energy consumed by the onsite wastewater treatment system, resulting in a net energy neutral or even net energy positive treatment system.
1. The participants will be able to understand the technical, cost and sustainability drivers for In-building Onsite Water Reclamation and thermal energy recovery systems.
2. The participants will be able to characterize the general design concepts behind for In-building Onsite Water Reclamation
3. The participants will learn what are the major design concepts behind thermal energy recovery from reclaimed water storage tanks.
4. The participants learn about the water quality compliance resulting from in-building onsite water reuse
5. The participants will be able to characterize the lessons learned from implementation of multiple onsite water reuse systems
Bruce Douglas has more than 35 years of national and international experience in water quality management. He holds Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees in environmental disciplines. He has been a researcher, regulator, consultant, and manager of public and private water infrastructure planning and implementation projects. Throughout his career, Bruce has improved integrated water quality infrastructure policy, project planning, project delivery, and long-term sustainability. As a Vice President with Natural Systems Utilities, he is focused on the development of onsite and district wastewater treatment and water reuse systems from offices in Fall River and Brewster, Massachusetts.
Zach Gallagher is a licensed Professional Engineer and LEED Accredited Professional holding BS and MS degrees from Rutgers University in Bio-Resource and Civil/Environmental Engineering. He is currently Executive Vice President for Natural Systems Utilities (NSU) and serves on the Board of Directors as Vice Chair for the U.S. Green Building Council, NJ Chapter. NSU is a distributed infrastructure development and investment company specializing in onsite water treatment and reuse systems. With more than 30 years of innovation and leadership in the water industry, NSU operates one of the largest bases of distributed onsite water treatment and reuse systems in the United States. Zach’s current focus is on water reuse and complete integrated infrastructure approaches that combine water and energy with a concentration on handling the systems integration aspects and overall functionality.
Grease and Oil Interceptor Design and Sizing with Respect Dangers of Hydrogen Sulfide - 323Contains 5 Component(s), Includes Credits
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Grease and Oil Interceptor Design and Sizing with Respect Dangers of Hydrogen Sulfide - 323. This presentation will discuss current trends in interceptor design and sizing with emphasis on the ramifications associated with generation and build up of toxic hydrogen sulfide.
Interceptor design and sizing, combined with maintenance practices, can affect the build-up of Hydrogen Sulfide inside an interceptor. This toxic gas is hazardous to employees and can be converted by aerobic bacteria inside the interceptor to Sulfuric Acid, which is very corrosive in wastewater streams. This acidity generated can contribute to concrete and metal interceptor corrosion and downstream sewer and lift station corrosion. Excellent interceptor design and sizing is necessary to prevent these catastrophic effects.
1. Upon completion, attendee will better understand pitfalls and best practices of interceptor design that can be immediately used at their job.
2. Upon completion, attendee will be able to properly size various interceptors and understand the pitfalls of incorrect sizing, with the impact to the customer. Knowledge can be immediately applied.
3. Upon completion, the attendee will understand the dangers of Hydrogen sulfide to employee health and how to overcome them through proper interceptor design and sizing.
4. Upon completion, the attendee will understand the long term dangers and ramifications of improper design, sizing and maintenance of interceptors, to then immediately focus clients to achieve optimal client solutions
Silvano Ferrazzo with Zurn Industries' Site Works' team has more than 25 years of experience in engineering, product design, commercial development, and environmental regulatory development. Silvano is an active Board Member of the Plumbing and Drainage Institute (PDI), is a member of ASPE, and participates on CSA and UPC committees in both the U.S. and Canada. Silvano speaks authoritatively on interceptor and trench drain issues related to wastewater management and regulations affecting collection systems and employee health and safety. As a chemical engineer, he brings a down-to-earth approach to shed light on current industry trends and solutions.
Commercial High-Purity Water Systems and Applications - 322Contains 5 Component(s), Includes Credits
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Commercial High-Purity Water Systems and Applications - 322. This presentation covers the basics of commercial high-purity and ultrapure water systems. It begins with a discussion of "what is high-purity water?" (e.g., different grades and standards, plus how we measure purity levels).
This presentation covers the basics of commercial high-purity and ultrapure water systems. It begins with a discussion of "what is high-purity water?" (e.g., different grades and standards, plus how we measure purity levels). Next it moves to a discussion of different applications for pure water systems. Then we take an in-depth look at the different techniques for purifying water (distillation, deionization, membrane filtration/reverse osmosis, and electrodionization). A particular focus is made on how reverse osmosis works and the various components needed to build a complete system. Additional focus is made on the use of deionization technologies for polishing water to higher quality levels (such as ultrapure). We spend a few minutes discussing high-purity piping systems, including materials, desired velocities, etc. Finally we discuss the sizing/selection of high-purity systems, with an example or two if time allows.
1. Upon completion, participant will be able to define high-purity and ultrapure water, with a better understanding of some of the quality standards that are used in the marketplace. 10 minutes.
2. Upon completion, participant will be able to describe how the distillation and deionization processes work. 10 minutes.
3. Upon completion, the participant will be able to describe how membrane filtration (Reverse Osmosis) works. 10 minutes.
4. Upon completion, the learning participant will be able to list the various key components of an operating Reverse Osmosis system. 10 minutes.
5. Upon completion, the participant will understand the key data that must be gathered in order to properly design and specify a high-purity water system. 10 minutes.
6. Upon completion, participant will be able to list the various material and design options for high-purity water piping systems. 10 minutes.
Not All Alloys are Created Equal - 321Contains 5 Component(s), Includes Credits Includes a Live Web Event on 12/02/2020 at 10:00 AM (CST)
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Not All Alloys are Created Equal - 321. There are many valve materials to choose from when designing for commercial plumbing however it can be difficult to decipher the features and benefits to each material. This presentation will explore the differences between the varieties of materials commonly chosen for design including the realization that some materials labeled as bronze technically are a brass material according to the Copper Institute.
The Safe Water Drinking Act of 2014 changed the way valves are manufactured and as a result changed the valve material components that are now on specifications. However, some engineering firms have not updated their valve specifications since 2014. This presentation will dive into when to install brass, bronze, stainless steel, iron, or thermoplastics based on the application, while also discussing how these materials may have changed with the lead-free laws. A discussion of brass versus bronze will reveal that some materials in the industry labeled as bronze actually are brass materials according to the Copper Development Association. The goal of the presentation is to enlighten the audience about what valve material to use in certain applications based on the fluid running through the valve.
- List the valve materials that are listed in the plumbing design handbook and the materials that are not listed although they are often used in commercial plumbing design.
- Define the differences of brass versus bronze, discuss the changes in alloy composition, highlight alloy definitions from the Copper Institute, discuss heat treated brass, and dezincification susceptibility.
- Understand when to choose iron, malleable iron, and stainless steel in design based upon fluid and application with a detailed discussion on industrial design.
- Demonstrate when to apply a thermoplastic material option which is commonly used in design but not specifically identified in the design handbook.
National Specification Manager
Lauren Berenato has been with Jomar Group since February of 2019. She is the national specifications manager for the commercial plumbing division of the company. She connects their manufacturer’s representative agencies in the United States with Jomar to help advance the plumbing and hydronics industries to the most efficient methods of developing their systems. Prior to working with Jomar, Lauren served as the national business development manager with a valve manufacturer. She has been involved in the plumbing and hydronics industries since 2016.
She is a member of ASPE, ASA, and AIM/R; within ASA she is involved in the emerging leaders division, plumbing division as well as women in industry division. Lauren serves on the ASPE Region 1 Board as the affiliate liaison member.
Hands On Workshop for Multi-Story Fittings in High Rise Vertical Construction - 312Contains 5 Component(s), Includes Credits Includes a Live Web Event on 12/02/2020 at 10:00 AM (CST)
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Hands On Workshop for Multi-Story Fittings in High Rise Vertical Construction - 312. Introduction to a group of Drain, Waste, and Venting fittings for use in Hi-Rise Vertical Construction with stacked, single occupant restrooms. There is also a hands-on portion of the presentation to see how the fittings assemble in the field.
This presentation looks at a group of industry-based, established drain, waste, and vent fittings designed for use in high-rise vertical construction with stacked, single-occupant restrooms such as hotels, hospitals, and condominiums. It will look at the history and basic anatomy of these fittings, explore the types of projects where these fittings should be used, review the basic types of available fittings, and review the installation procedures. This presentation also includes a hands-on segment where the attending design professional will actually install a fitting assembly in a test jig to experience first-hand the advantages and value of this product group.
- Understand the history and basic anatomy of a Multi-Story Fitting
- Understand the types of projects that use Multi-Story Fittings
- Understand the basic types of Multi-Story Fittings
- Understand the installation of a Multi-Story Fitting
- Assemble an actual Multi-Story Fitting system in an in-class, virtual hands-on installation.
Paul Tully is a Field Technical Representative for Charlotte Pipe and Foundry Company. His primary focus is educating engineers, designers, contractors, and code officials on products, industry trends, and issues, as well as handling jobsite issues. Paul graduated from the University of North Texas with a BBA in Strategic Management and has been in the plumbing industry for more than 25 years, working with many facets of the construction industry. Paul is based in the Dallas area and serves the south central and Rocky Mountain states.
Brian Helms is the Training Manager for Charlotte Pipe and Foundry. Brian attended the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and holds active PMP, CSM, CTC, and GGP certifications. He currently leads Charlotte Pipe’s Onsite Product Knowledge Training Program but also has experience as a Field Technical Services Rep, model mechanical and plumbing code development, as well as plastics and cast iron pipe and fitting manufacturing. Brian has also led projects to develop Charlotte Pipe’s two mobile technical applications, CPF TechTools and CPF ChemGuide. He has written articles for such industry publications as Plumbing & Mechanical and Plumbing Engineer and has been employed with Charlotte Pipe for more than 20 years.
Double Containment Fuel Piping - UL 1369 - 123Contains 6 Component(s), Includes Credits
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Double Containment Fuel Piping - UL 1369 - 123. Double containment fuel piping is a reliable system designed and tested for liquid fuels such as Gasoline, Diesel, and Bio Diesel for use in above and below ground fuel piping in retail and commercial applications. Design and installation of any fuel piping system is dependent on the acceptance of the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) and in accordance with State and Local codes. Double Containment pipe is required for all below ground applications meeting the UL 971A standard with a new above ground standard released in 2018, UL 1369.
Double containment pipe was invented for the chemical and petroleum industries and was incorporated in the design of a system over single-wall pipe to provide an additional barrier from any potential leaks in the primary pipe. The secondary containment addressed the concerns of potential hazards of possible leaks entering ground soil or waterways. Regulations changed, and it was dictated that all underground fuel piping be double containment and be in compliance with UL 971 A due to the environmental concerns. The function and use of double containment pipe has evolved and now additionally allows for secondary or interstitial monitoring as a measure of safety and environmentally sound practice. With the safety of plant/facility personnel and environmental concerns for aboveground fuel piping, UL 1369 was released to provide a benchmark for aboveground fuel piping. This presentation will address the properties and practical benefits of double containment fuel pipe as well as the new UL 1369 aboveground fuel pipe listing.
- History/ Function of Double Containment Fuel Pipe (5 min)
- Above ground Double Containment Fuel Pipe Applications (10 min)
- New UL 1369 Listing (25 min)
- Current NFPA/ASME compliance and Inclusion into Model Codes for 2021 (15 min)
- Discussion of potential design and operation implications (5 min)
Physical Water Conditioning - 122Contains 5 Component(s), Includes Credits
ASPE Digital Conference Session: Physical Water Conditioning - 122. Physical water conditioners can take the place of conventional salt based water softeners but their performance can vary and it is important to appreciate their limitations. New test protocols have been developed and are in the process of development.
This presentation explains the chemistry of hard water, why scale forms, and the problems it creates. It looks at the conventional method of treatment and the drawbacks, especially environmental, associated with it. The presentation goes on to explain the science behind physical water conditioners and classifies them into three generic types, explaining the limitations of each and the design criteria that is important in specifying them. We also look at the code requirements for treating hard water and the test protocols currently available. A number of case studies evaluating the cost savings and environmental benefits will be shown.
- Understand the Chemistry of Hard Water. 5 Minutes
- Appreciate the effect of Scale on Plumbing Systems and how it relates to Legionella Control. 4 Minutes
- Understand the Pros and Cons of conventional water softeners. 5 minutes
- Understand how various types of Physical Water Conditioners actually work. 15 minutes
- Understand how the location of Physical Water Conditioners can be very important to their performance. 5 minutes
- Have an appreciation of the cost benefits of the new technology over the older technology. 5 minutes
Jonny Seccombe is the Founder and Owner of Lifescience Products Ltd. in the UK since 1994 and since 2008 the President of its U.S. subsidiary, Aqua-Rex LLC. He has been instrumental in a number of breakthroughs in the understanding of how some physical water conditioners actually work and their limitations. He has been involved in the development of test protocols in the U.S. since 2007 and sponsored the first effective protocol by IAPMO, the IGC 335 Rapid Scaling Test. He has an MA from Oxford University and was for many years an FCA in the UK, equivalent to a CPA in the U.S. He lives in the UK and commutes on a monthly basis to the U.S. (except during lockdown!).